大调音阶里的和弦 | Hub Guitar

大调音阶里的和弦

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Let's talk about building chords using the major scale.

Every note in the major scale can be turned into a chord. And the process is the same for every note, although the results are a little different.

First let's talk about the process. For now, when we turn a note into a chord, we will add 2 notes on top of it. The result is a chord, of which the original note is the root.

The notes we add will be from the scale that we're working in, and they will be odd numbers starting on the root of the chord. So we take the first note, skip the next, and add the third. Then we skip the next note, and add the fifth. Now we've got a chord. Later on we'll talk about extended harmony where we add even more notes, but for now that's the basic idea.

If we do this for every note in the C major scale, we will encounter a total of three different chord types: major chord, minor chords, and diminished chords. The result will be a major chord when we have a big jump followed by a little jump. That big jump is called a "major third" as it is a third (C...D...E...) and it's the bigger of two possible kinds. The result will be a minor chord when we have a little jump followed by a big jump. That little jump is called a minor third. It's still a third (D...E...F...) but this time it's one half-step smaller so it sounds a bit sad. Finally, there is an unusual result that happens in one case: it's a little jump followed by another little jump. This is called a diminished chord. It's not used very frequently, but it's useful to know about it.

So those are the three types of chord that you can get as a result if you stack the notes of the C major scale into thirds in order to build basic triads. So if you want to get deeper into this, take the C major scale on the guitar, and for each note, figure out how to stack it into thirds and then figure out how to play those groups of notes as chords.


用音阶来构造和弦

首先我们来弹一个C大调音阶,可能得到的 和声组合有哪些呢?和声简单来说就是多个音符的组合,怎样搭配音符才能听起来最好呢?如果你只是随意搭配就能得到不错的结果那最不过了,然而,当你掌握一些音乐原理后,这个过程会变得更加有规律。

检查C大调音阶中的音符,我们从低到高绘制了下图这个图表,我们来看看它们互相之间的关系。

the musical alphabet.

基础和弦

在这个音阶上编写和弦最常用的方法,就是在每个音符上叠加2个音。比如,要基于第一个音符C上编写和弦的话,我们会跳过下一个音(D),选择E,然后我们跳过下一个音(F),选择G,这样我们就得到了 C-E-G。当你同时弹奏这三个音的时候,就是C大调和弦了。同理我们还可以得到 D-F-A。

这样我们也会得到大和弦,对吗?等等,结果好像不一样。我们现在假设我们在D调里,D调音阶有两个升音:F♯ 和 C♯,然后我们就可以得到的大和弦是D-F♯-A。由于其实我们是基于C大调上,而不是D大调和弦(之前只是假设),所以我们要把F♯降到F以适应音阶。这样的话我们创造出了一个小和弦,而不是大和弦。

C调的和弦

Listening

C大调音阶

C大调和弦

所有剩余的和弦要么大和弦或小和弦,唯独七和弦B。B调音阶中有5个升音:F♯, C♯, G♯, D♯ and A♯。像D和弦一样,这个和弦的第1个音符—B—和第3个音—D—之间的距离被缩小了。然而在第B调里,第五个音是F♯,这个音也被降了,被称为diminished(减七和弦)。

比较三种和弦,我们要理解为什么它们被叫做大和弦小和弦或是减和弦,其实这都是根据最高音和根音之间的距离来决定的。拿C大调和弦举个例子:

C大调和弦

(大三+小三)

C大调中的根音(C)和第3个音(E)之间相隔三度,叫major thirdAn interval of four semitones, and the key interval defining a major chord.,根音(C)和第5个音(G)相隔五度,叫perfect fifthAn interval of seven semitones, and the most stable interval in music. Musical tuning systems are based on this interval. This interval plays a very important role in music theory.,所以它是个大三和弦。

D小调和弦

(小三+大三)

对比C大调和D小调:

D小调中根音(D)和第3个音(F)之间相隔三度,所以叫minor thirdAn interval of three semitones, and the key interval defining a minor chord. ,根音(D)第5个音(A)之间相隔五度,但仍然是perfect fifthAn interval of seven semitones, and the most stable interval in music. Musical tuning systems are based on this interval. This interval plays a very important role in music theory.

B减和弦

(小三+小三)

最后,我们来看一下减和弦(diminished chord):

B 减和弦中根音(B)和第3个音(D)之间相隔三度,是minor thirdAn interval of three semitones, and the key interval defining a minor chord. ,根音(B)第5个音(F)之间相隔五度,是diminished fifthAn interval of six semitones, enharmonically equivalent to an augmented fourth.,所以它是个减和弦。

这些和弦听起来也有不同的效果,大和弦有明朗,开阔的音响效果;小和弦由小三度组成,听上去暗淡,忧郁。减和弦由小三度和减五度构成,听起来给人紧张不安的感觉。

本日目标

  1. 记住每种和弦的属性和罗马数字代号:
    …哪个和弦是大调和弦?_______________
    …哪个和弦是小调和弦?______________
    …哪个和弦是减和弦?_____________
  2. 写下下列音调中的和弦:G, A, F, B♭
    …G __ __ __ __ __ __
    …A __ __ __ __ __ __
    …F __ __ __ __ __ __
    …B♭ __ __ __ __ __ __
  3. 辨识写出下列和弦进行:
    …I vi ii vii in G. (“G, Em, Am, F♯dim”)
    …I IV V vi in F _____________________
    … I iii ii I in C ______________________
    … I iii IV V vi in B♭ ___________________

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